Friday, February 7, 2020
HIV-1 Detection by Western Blot Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1
HIV-1 Detection by Western Blot - Lab Report Example The antibody when exposed to the enzyme with the substrate will lead to the production of a band that is colored (Luttmann, Bratke, Kupper and Myrtek, 2006). The test is done several times in the positive and the negative control serum to bring the clear identification of the viral protein. In the carrying out the test, there is the consideration of the nine HIV specific bands. When the bands are exposed to the serum of the individual the reaction that occurs in the bands and the patterns is what results to the diagnosis of the individual with the HIV virus. In the experiment to determine the availability of the virus, the polyacrylamide gel is extracted from the tray and the nylon that is used in the experiment is place directly onto the gel. After the nylon membrane is placed on the gel, bands of protein are transferred to the surface of the nylon membrane which makes them to be absorbed by the nylon membrane through the hydrophobic bonds (Wikipedia, 2013). The transfer between the bonds is achieved in chambers that are specially designed through capillary flow or by application of vacuum. DNA and RNA microarrays have been used in the determination of the infection with HIV since they are the key ways in the understanding of the expression of the genes and the method also allow for the rapid quantification of many of the genes once in the given cell that is focused. The microarrays have focused on the determination of the effect of the HIV on the single viral proteins in the individual in the line of lymphoid cells. The microarrays are used in the determination of the HIV due to the instance that the expression of the genes in an individual are always altered during the time of infection with the HIV (Luttmann, Bratke, Kupper and Myrtek, 2006). Infection in the individual is confirmed when the microarrays multiplex leading to the detection and also differentiate the sources that has brought the infection in the individual. In the carrying out of
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Values And Ethics Essay Values and ethics are two different things that go hand in hand. Values simply refer to our view points, beliefs and thoughts that we hold in regard to important aspects of our lives. They are the cultures and beliefs that we hold close to our hearts in regard to what is important to us. Ethics on the other hand is our personal code of conduct as stipulated and acceptable to the society. The personal values that we hold impact greatly on our ethics, they can also be in conflict. I have a number of personal values that I hold close to my Herat. Core to this is work, people and family. These remain a guiding point and an inspiration to my life. They are a source of strength and consolation. It is popularly said that charity begins at home and in this I have come to believe. Michael Rosenberg notes that Ã¢â¬Å"the family is probably the most important agent of socializationÃ¢â¬ . He goes on to expound on this adding that from the first days a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life, the individual is molded; significant others impact a wide range of meanings about norms and values that are related to the kinds of behavior which that individual will experience during the counts of his or her life. (1983, p. 163). Indeed most of what we know and put into practice emanates from our initial socialization. I feel I owe a lot to my family for the way it has molded me. A look at my childhood reveals a series of ups and down; struggles to remain in the right even when temptation to do wrong is overwhelming. Whether or not I was able to do right and sometimes falter in my steps, one thing remained constant; the support I received from my family. Family is an important institution not only for love and constant care, but also for the unconditional support no matter the challenges ahead. Taking a look back in my life, I can see the important hurdles I have been able to overcome in life due to the support that I have secured from my parents, support that has shaped and imparted important values in my life. Work is another core personal value that continues to inspire me in my current life. A glance at the world today reveals that work remains a central value to majority of people, a centrality almost equaling that of the family. Work is not only an occupation and a source of livelihood but it is also a way of continually molding individuals when they are not within the precincts of the family. Work has continued to imbue a sense of discipline and is an avenue through which to put into practice values instilled in me by the family. It is in the working environment that values such as punctuality, accuracy and professionalism are fully put into practice. Work has become a core value not only in the financial aspect but also the opportunity it has given me to pursue an interest that is close to my heart. It gives me a chance to interact with others and contribute positively towards the alleviation of their sufferings. Although charity begins at home, it is important to note that values instilled at this stage are meant to act as guidelines to future interaction with the rest of the society. It is how effectively that an individual interacts with the society that determines ones destiny and success in life. This brings another core value; people. Right from my childhood, I was taught the essence of being able to interact effectively with people from various backgrounds; I was taught the importance of possessing excellent communication skills to foster effective interaction with the rest of the society. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s age, although academic qualifications are key to an upward career progression, social networking is a key ingredient. As a social worker, my work revolves around assisting people; they are the source of my livelihood as well as fulfillment. A positive interaction with people is a must if I am to advance in career and earn my livelihood. According to Kim Strong Gottfried et al, NASW Code of Ethics refers to a set of values, principles and standards to guide decision making and conduct when ethical issues arise. A look at these values and ethics reveals a number of differences and similarities to my core personal values. One of these values according to NASW is the Ã¢â¬Å"importance of human relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (2002, p28) Social workers have been molded to appreciate the importance of maintaining positive interactions with the people. According to the code of ethics, they are supposed to Ã¢â¬Å"strengthen relationships among people in a purposeful effort to promote, restore, maintain and enhance the well being of individuals, families, social groups, organizations and communities (Kim Strong G. et al ,2002) As afore mentioned, one or my core is the people. As social workers recognize the importance of human relationships, I have also appreciated the benefits to be reaped by a close interaction with people and the need to help where necessary. The NASW code of ethics propagates for the dignity and worth of every individual. I have with time discovered the importance of working with people from various backgrounds and learnt to address their problems no matter their culture, ethnicity, color or creed. This emanates from the need to uphold the dignity and worth of every individual. A social worker serves others and helps them cope with the challenges in life. As mentioned, another core personal value is work. My work provides fulfillment when I aptly mobilize all the resources at my disposal to assist others. I believe in the need and the ability to help others as the greatest gift in life. NASW code of ethics also espouses this emphasizing on the need to overcome personal interests to better the lives of others. One major difference that exists between my core personal values and the NASW code of ethics is the role of the family. My family has played a big role towards molding me and its still plays influential role. Family interests in social work may bring a conflict of interest. Though it may go a long way in helping me to understand the society, it may be detrimental where the first duty is to the family other than to the clients as professionalism insists. Vignette #3 Vignette number three is about a 68 year old lady contemplating death to ease the immense pain she is undergoing as a cancer patient. The main reason why I have chosen this vignette is because it brings into a sharp focus a topic that has been dominating the public debate for long and continues to evoke emotions each moment it is mentioned. The issue of whether it is ethically wrong for a terminally ill patent to undergo euthanasia is still controversial in the medical profession circles. As I go through the vignette, I have strong feeling against what the client is proposing. Despite the immense pain that she is in, I am convinced that taking an overdose is the wrong approach. Due to limited interaction with people of advanced age in the society, I have an ill convinced notion that they have little respect for the set laws and guidelines and will tend to make decisions arbitrarily with little regard of the consequences. I have had a preconceived belief that due to their advanced age, they assume that laws can be bent to accommodate their whims. . My interaction with the client though compounded by the preconceived assumptions about old people was uneasy; it became uneasy the moment she told me of what she had thought of doing. I had made it known to her clearly that my moral and ethical stand could not allow me to empathize with her. Though I shared in her pain, I was getting increasingly uneasy with her and made sure her medicine was kept out of her reach. I was employing each and every effort to make her comfortable but she had other plans with her life. The fact that she made it clear she would end her life as she could not bear the pain gave me an uneasy feeling. I am aware of the debilitating impact that my preconceived assumptions in regard to the old client had on my objectivity and my interaction with the client. I was already convinced that the old lady would try to circumvent the system in order to accomplish her objectives. These perceptions clouded my judgment and the fair view of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s situation. To overcome these cases and be able to make a decision that is within the precincts of professionalism, I would request the help of colleagues who have far much experience in dealing with such cases. He would guide me towards gaining objectivity in my judgment. I have also decided to spend more time with the client to be able to understand her better and see how well I can help her. Should this not work, I would consult with my mentor or a higher authority to have the clients allocated to another medical social worker in the knowledge that our first commitment is to the client. Dilemma #4 I have chosen this ethical dilemma for one main reason, I had handled familiar cases during my internship although then mostly I was helping battered men and women cope with their problems. I was also assisting newly divorced individuals overcome their frustrations in life. I am confident that tackling this ethical dilemma will add to my wealth of experience. This ethical dilemma is compounded by the fact that the male client is contemplating killing his wife should she decided to leave him. This is a crime and should be reported to the relevant authorities. On the other hand, as a professional I am bound by work ethics and confidentiality. Whatever the client confides in me is supposed to remain confidential and should not be revealed to a third party. According to the NASW Code of Ethics social workers Ã¢â¬Å"should protect the confidentiality of all information obtained in the course of professional service. Ã¢â¬ (1999) Following the same NASW Code of Ethics, as a social worker, I should use my intuition and competence to choose the appropriate course of action whenever such a case arises. In this case, I would either choose to report the client to the police of the planned murder or dedicate my time towards assisting the client to manage his anger and outline the inappropriateness and the consequence of his planned actions. Should I opt to report the matter to the police, I should inform the client before hand of the impending disclosure. Both of these courses of action have their pros and Cons. If I decide to report the case to the police, I will have violated the clients trust and confidence, not only in me but also in social workers. The client might refuse to disclose any other information or share his problems with me. If I choose this course of action, I should be prepared, according to the NASW code of ethics, to Ã¢â¬Å"protect the confidentiality of the client during legal proceedings to the extent permitted by law. Ã¢â¬ On the other hand I will have prevented a crime. (1999) If I decide to assist the client cope with his anger without involving a third party there is a risk that the client will go ahead and carry out his threat. In such a case, I will be liable legally for failing to disclose information that turns out to be harmful to a third party. I shall have earned the clients trust and might be able to see him through his problems. The NASW code of ethics is an appropriate resource to guide me on the appropriate decision to make. I would also consult with colleagues or with the supervisors in the field. In such a case though, it is important that I withhold any information that could lead to his identification. Faced with such a dilemma, I would opt to report the matter to the police to avoid any harm coming to third parties . The clients has had a history of violence and would probably go ahead and execute the attacks even with my counseling. To avoid the occurrence of such an incident and to protect the wife and also the client from himself, it would be appropriate that I took up the matter with the police. References NASW code of ethics. 1999 NASW Delegate Assembly. Retrieved on June 20th 2008 from http://ncss. aua. edu/docs/naswcodeofethics. pdf Michael Rosenberg, 1983. Introduction to sociology. Routledge. Phyllis N. Black, Elaine Piller, Kimstrong Gottfried, 2002. Teaching social work values and ethics: A curriculum resource. Council on Social Work education. University of Michigan.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Nick Carroway is not a very judgmental person, in fact, he himself states that he withholds judgment so that he can get the entire story out of the person to whom he is listening. To say that Nick is both approving and disapproving is not suspiring, for Nick rarely looks at things from only one perspective. Nick finds Gatsby to be ignorantly honest, in that Gatsby could not fathom the idea of saying something without really meaning it. He respects Gatsby for his determination to fit in with the East Egg crowd, though Gatsby does not realize that he does not really fit in with them. On the other hand, Nick sees Gatsby to be excessively flashy and, in the words of Holden Caulfield, 'phony.' Gatsby's whole life is a lie from the moment he left behind the name James Gatz and became Jay Gatsby. Gatsby lies about his past to try to have people perceive him as an 'old money' guy when that really is not necessary. Gatsby's valiant efforts to lure Daisy are respectable, yet they show Gatsby's failure to accept reality and give up on his long lost dream. Gatsby is one of the most determined and organized characters in the book. When Mr. Gatz shows Nick the schedule from Gatsby?s childhood, Nick realizes how even though Gatsby?s history changed, Gatsby was always a very goal oriented person. Once Gatsby set his mind to something, he would do anything to follow through with his over-all goal. For the main portion of the novel, the goal that Gatsby has is Daisy. Gatsby becomes determined to get her in anyway he can. Nick respects that Gatsby still has love for Daisy after all of the years apart, even after she married Tom when she promised to wait for Gatsby when he came out of the army. Gatsby?s trait of following through on something is very admirable and is a quality that many characters in the novel greatly lack. Gatsby has a heart and is true to it, whilst Daisy, Tom, and other characters are bullish and inhuman, running over people and then hiding behind their money. Gatsby is true honest and determined and Nick truly res pects Gatsby for these traits. Gatsby?s life from the day he created the name ?Jay Gatsby? and left behind his past and the name ?
Monday, January 13, 2020
Impact of the Affordable Care Act on North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Uninsured Health insurance is one of the most important benefits a citizen can have in America. Some Americans who work acquire health insurance through their employers. But then, there are Americas who do not work and therefore, are unable to have health insurance. The Affordable Care Act was signed into law on March 23, 2010 by President Obama and the United States Congress, (North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Institute of Medicine, 2012). This paper will focus on the impact of the Affordable Care Act on North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s uninsured. With the rising cost in health care and high co-payments pertaining to medical conditions, some people cannot afford health insurance. With the loss of jobs and losing their livelihood, some people cannot afford insurance. Individuals who work with small businesses do not have health insurance because these small businesses cannot afford to provide health insurance benefits for their employees. Som e people just do not work and therefore, do not have health insurance. This whole uninsured population is the ones who do not seek health care when they have health issues or have chronic medical conditions, and also do not practice preventative care. According to the North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Institute of Medicine (2012), there was 1.6 million (19%) uninsured people living in North Carolina in 2010 and According to Milstead (4th edition, 2013), this group of uninsured whose income was below federal poverty level included pregnant women, children 18 years old and under, parents who were employed or unemployed, adults without children, disabled and the elderly population. By 2014, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) offered much new coverage for the uninsured population. It required states to offer Medicaid insurance to working families whose income was below the federal poverty level of 138%, that is $30,429 for a family of four ( Milstead, 2013). According to North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Institute of Medicine (NCIOM), For a family making above the federal poverty level, but not enough to affordÃ health insurance, the ACA provided subsidies to help them purchase private insurance through new insurances that was created by the ACA. Before ACA, Medicaid only covered children, parents, pregnant women, disabled people and the elderly. Now in 2014, it is available to all adults making below the federal income level (NICOM, 2012). This population of insured people will now receive health services, preventative services, and prescription drugs and so on. By 2014, with the Affordable Care Act in effect, according to (NCIOM, 2012), almost 800,000 of people living in North Carolina that were not insured will be insured. 41% of this population will obtain insurance through private insurances and 59% through Medicaid. With this amount of surplus in insured patients, health care workers and professionals will be in greater demand, especially primary care providers. This may cause a longer wait period to see onesÃ¢â¬â¢ primary provider or a specialist. There will also be a decrease in treating preventative care. North Carolina is aware that there will be a shortage of medical personnelÃ¢â¬â¢s with this demand. They have to find the funds to educate and have enough health care providers to ensure that the workforce is available to meet the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s demand of insured people. The health care workforce, who are the primary workers, include doctors, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ assistants, psychologists, psychiatrists , medical assistants, nurse midwives, and licensed practical nurses. This workforce, in a broad spectrum, ensures that patients receive optimal quality care, treat and teach preventative care, manage chronic illnesses, both physically and mentally. To be able to increase the medical workforce in order to meet the health care needs of the population, North CarolinaÃ¢â¬â¢s schools and universities have increased their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ class capacities. Some of these schools including Duke University School of Medicine, The UNC Chapel Hill Department of Pediatrics/ UNC Hospitals, the nursing programs at UNC Wilmington, Western Carolina University and many others have received funding from the ACA and other agencies. Other groups are responsible to offer loans and scholarships in the effort to attract students into the medical field. Rural training is also available to students as well. (NICOM, 2012). North Carolina is alsoÃ encouraging a diversified form of teaching and is encouraging minorities to be a part of the medical workforce. They believe that patients will adhere to practicing better health and lifestyle changes if they are told to do so from someone of their own race. North Carolina is taking appropriate steps to be able to meet the health care needs of its insured people. The State has taken steps to expand the medical team workforce through offering scholarships and grants to different universities. This is to enable patients to receive access to good quality health care, both in the urban and rural areas. Community centers infrastructures are been redesigned to meet the needs of the insured population. Health insurance companies are responsible to provide health benefits such as low co-payments according to the plan an individual or family signs up for (NICOM, 2012). Health insurance companies are also responsible to be able to help pay for prescriptions drugs, outpatient care, emergency care, hospitalization, and preventative care practices. According to( NICOM, 2012), North Carolina is not a healthy state, but with the introduction of the ACA, they are planning to become a healthy state in the year 2020. The ethical implications of the Affordable Care Act are giving the citizens of North Carolina a right to have health insurance. No one should avoid going to the doctor when they are sick because they cannot afford it. Everyone should have a choice to practice preventative care medicine. According to the Whitehouse.gov, pre-existing conditions will no longer be a barrier to obtaining health insurance. Individuals and families will receive tax credit support to pay for their coverage. All in all, the Affordable Care Act has given all Americans the right to have health insurance. References North Carolina Institute of Medicine (NCIOM). Examining the Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in North Carolina, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.nciom.org The Affordable Care Act: Immediate Benefits for North Carolina. Retrieved www.whitehouse.gov/files/documents/healthcare-facts Milstead, J. Health Policy and Politics, 2013.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Donaldsons Beowulf Fate often saves an undoomed man when his courage is good -Beowulf (Donaldson, 12) The passage that I analyzed spans the action when Beowulf returns to the halls of Heorot after a harsh battle with GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. He returns to king Hrothgar in the great hall of Heorot to say that he has successfully completed his boast and killed GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. Beowulf states that it has been a very difficult underwater battle and that he has barely escaped with his life, Ã¢â¬Å"The fight would have been ended straightway if God had not guarded meÃ¢â¬ (Donaldson, 29). Beowulf mentions this due to the fact that the sword given to him by Unferth, called Hrunting, was powerless against GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s Mother. Hrunting isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During the festivities celebrating BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s victory the King predicts that Beowulf will become the protector of the Geats until old age takes him and that he will be one of their greatest kings. Christian and Pagan Elements (p 28-31) GRAPH The many references to God in the pages (28-31) of Beowulf reflect Christian beliefs as opposed to pagan ones. In pagan worship, nature takes the place of God along with the belief that inanimate objects contain spirits. The Geats would refer to Grendel and his mother as Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬â¢s enemyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"descendants of Cain.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"CainÃ¢â¬ is a biblical reference to the story of Cain and Abel. In this story, Cain slays his brother Abel and consequently, is banished by God for all of eternity. Because of his role as the first murderer, Cain is thought to be the father of all monsters. Another example of Christianity which is evident in Beowulf is the fact that the Ã¢â¬Å"eye for an eyeÃ¢â¬ belief is practiced. During the second raid of Heorot by GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, a very close friend of King Hrothgar and great warrior named Aeschere is murdered. The monster, not abiding by the laws of the time, is subject to the Ã¢â¬Å"eye for an eyeÃ¢â¬ belief and then has to be murderedShow MoreRelatedEssay Beowulf Translations In Time2840 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesBeowulf Translations In Time Beowulf. The oldest and, arguably, the greatest epic in English literatureÃ¢â¬â¢s vast history. Beowulf is an epic poem, originally written in Old English, that details the heroic exploits of the warrior, Beowulf, throughout his life. It represents the heroic ideal and the role of fateÃ¢â¬â¢s importance to the Old English people, while also addressing politics, war, old-age, kinsmanship, and fantasy. The depth of the poem, in both its poetry and narration, is incredible
Friday, December 27, 2019
ABSTRACT Thrust Torque Calculations for MOVÃ¢â¬â¢s using Microsoft Office Products Prepared by Michael C. Richard Teledyne Brown Engineering Desktop computing using Microsoft Office products have changed the way that engineering calculations are performed. But, is the change for the better or the worse? Engineering Managers are faced with the task of Ã¢â¬Å"computerizingÃ¢â¬ engineering calculations all the time. This paper presents some guidance on how to choose the method that best suits your calculation needs. Specifically, three methods of calculating thrust and torque for MOVÃ¢â¬â¢s will be presented. The three methods consist of an Excel model, an Access model, and a final model which uses Microsoft Visual Basic combined with Access (Microsoft Jet)Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The software validation process begins when the coding process has been completed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maintenance: Provide support for completed products until the product is retired. You may be thinking to yourself, I m only writing a simple Excel spreadsheet, so this doesn t apply to me. The purpose of presenting a software development model is to demonstrate that coding is only a piece of the overall development process and that it is not the first piece that should be done. The can be restated as follows: 1998 MUG Conference Page 2 of 8 Thrust Torque Calculations for MOVÃ¢â¬â¢s using Microsoft Products Ã¢â¬ ¢ Define BEFORE Design Ã¢â¬ ¢ Design BEFORE Code The purpose of presenting a generic software development model is to provide a framework for preparing a Torque Thrust Calculation for Motor Operated Valves (MOV) using Microsoft Office products. 3.0) Torque Thrust Calculations for MOV s using MS Office The generic software development model presented was illustrated for commercial grade software. The Testing phase of the software development cycle is a recommended practice for commercial grade software but does not necessarily have to be performed. The incentive for performing Verification and Validation testing is economics. Untested software will contain defects and may not meet the specification of the customer. Unhappy customers and high maintenance costs usually justify performing some amount of testing during the developmentShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource Management and Human Capital Management Essay799 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesintangible assets that may be valued in a public corporationÃ by simply subtracting net book value from market capitalization. Given the above statement, how do you propose to value human capital in your organization? While assets are often valued in dollars or monetaryÃ terms this need not be and should not beÃ the only measure of value that you con sider. There are several measurable that can be used to calculate the value of individuals within an organization. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019
Terrorist attacks similar to the one experienced in 2001 have left a number of Americans concerned over the likelihood of future terrorist attacks and their potential impacts, as well. Such attacks have increased the level of uncertainty regarding what may happen, which only serves to heighten anxiety and stress levels. Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), which include chemical, biological, and radiological weapons, have increased the likelihood of incidents of terrorism in America (Friedmann, Cannon, 2009, p. 9). The possibility of terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda employing WMDs against Americans is very real. A WMD may be defined as a weapon that has the capacity to cause grievous harm and/or destruction and death on a grand scaleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A modern pattern of terrorism seems to lean towards loosely organized and self-financed global networks of terrorist groups. Radical Islamic groups such as Al Qaeda, as well as other religious groups using religion as an ex cuse, have become a threat to the interests of the United States and other friendly regimes. International terrorism has become a key threat to U.S. domestic and foreign security. The timing and selection of target by terrorists has the potential of affecting AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s interests in important areas such as nuclear nonproliferation and the safeguarding of commerce. The increasing political participation of terrorist and extremist parties in foreign countries and the visible growth of cross-national connections among various terrorist organizations have also attracted the attention of the United States. This is because such links usually involve combinations of technology transfer, funding, and military training. The 2001 terrorist attacks served as a catalyst for broad and far-reaching changes in the security efforts of the United States (Friedmann, Cannon, 2009, p. 16). The attacks led to changes in not only how America would identify and respond to threats, but also its effo rts in preventing them, as well. Among the most notable changes was the establishment of the DHS (Department of Homeland Security), which was intended to lead broader homeland security endeavors though the